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Stretching 1,244 km (773 mi) from east to west and 1,289 km (801 mi) from north to south, Texas, the Lone Star State, occupies almost 7.5% of the nation's total land area--a region as large as all of New England, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois combined. With its 16,986,510 inhabitants (1990 resident census), Texas is the second most populous state in the country. It derives its name from the Spanish and Indian words tejas and techas, meaning "friends" or "allies."

Texas The Lone Star StateTexas shows the influence of both the Indians and the Spanish, French, and other European explorers and missionaries. In 1820, Moses and Stephen F. Austin started the Anglo-American colonization that culminated in the organization of a provisional government at San Felipe on Nov. 3, 1835, and in independence from Mexico on Mar. 2, 1836. After almost ten years as an independent republic, Texas became a U.S. state on Dec. 29, 1845.

The modern economic development of Texas started in January 1901 with the eruption of an oil well drilled at Spindletop, near Beaumont. The rapid discovery of oil in various other parts of the state led to a boom that has never really stopped. The economy of Texas has become highly diversified, and its population has more than quadrupled during this century.


Topography and Soils:

Four major physiographic subdivisions of North America are found in Texas: the Gulf Coastal Plain in the east and southeast, the North Central Plains running north to southeastward in the center of the state, the Great High Plains in the northwest, and the Trans-Pecos Mountains to the extreme west and southwest. The topography of Texas rises gradually from east to west, reaching its highest point in Guadalupe Peak (2,667 m/8,749 ft) in the Trans-Pecos.

The Gulf Coastal Plain, extending about 80 to 100 km (50 to 60 mi) inland from the Gulf of Mexico, from sea level to an altitude of about 150 m (500 ft), has a rolling-to-hilly surface. Its western part consists of a fertile belt of land of irregular width known as the Blackland Prairie.

Inland from the Coastal Plain, the North Central Plains of Texas are the southern extension of the Great Plains and reach southwestward across the entire state to the Rio Grande. The plains' southern portion is known as the Edwards Plateau. The border of the North Central Plains on the west is the Staked Plain, or Llano Estacado in Spanish. It consists of a flat-topped tableland with an elevation of about 1,200 m (4,000 ft). Lying between Mexico and New Mexico, the barren Trans-Pecos region in southwestern Texas alternates between rolling hills in the Pecos River valley and the isolated high ridges of the Guadalupe and Davis mountains.

Texas is divided into 14 land resource areas that have similar or related soils, vegetation, topography, and climate. The soils vary greatly in depth from one region to another and show different physical properties; all need fertilizing, however, and some need irrigating to make them productive.

Rivers and Lakes

Texas has two sources of water: aquifers, found under more than half the state, and streams with their reservoirs. Water from the former has traditionally been an essential source of municipal supplies; because of falling water tables, however, cities more and more must now depend on surface reservoirs.

The state's 3,700 streams have a combined length of approximately 130,000 km (80,000 mi). Among the major rivers are the Rio Grande, which drops about 3,650 m (12,000 ft) from source to mouth and constitutes the border with Mexico; the Red River, which partly separates Texas from Oklahoma and Arkansas; the Colorado River of Texas (965 km/600 mi), which is the longest river entirely within the state; and the Sabine, which forms the southern half of the boundary between Texas and Louisiana. Other rivers include the Pecos and the Devils, both tributaries of the Rio Grande; the Nueces; and the Guadalupe.

Texas has relatively few natural lakes but hundreds of artificial ones. These were developed to provide hydroelectricity, to store water, or to irrigate farmland. Among the largest are Lake Texoma (partly in Oklahoma) on the Red River, the Falcon and Amistad reservoirs on the Rio Grande, Sam Rayburn Reservoir on the Angelina River in eastern Texas, Lake Texarkana on the Sulphur River, Toledo Bend Reservoir on the Sabine, Lake Travis on the Colorado, and Lake Livingston on the Trinity River north of Houston.


The climates of Texas range from the hot subhumid found in the Rio Grande valley to the cold semiarid of the northern part of the Panhandle, and from the warm humid in the east to the arid of the Trans-Pecos. Rainfall varies from 1,400 mm (55 in) in the east to less than 250 mm (10 in) in the west. The average number of days with some precipitation ranges from 44 in El Paso to 110 in Houston. Drought can be a serious problem, especially in the Great High Plains, where an average of seven droughts occur in a 10-year period. Temperatures, too, vary greatly, ranging from 49 deg C (120 deg F) to -31 deg C (-23 deg F). Each year about 100 tornadoes occur, most frequently in the Red River valley. Vegetation and Animal Life

The dense pine forests of eastern Texas contrast with the deserts of the western part of the state, and the grassy plains of the north contrast with the semiarid brushes of southern Texas. Eastern Texas vegetation is characterized by dense pine forests and a variety of hardwoods, including oak, hickory, ash, and magnolia. The central region is dominated by oak, elm, and pecan, as well as, on the Edwards Plateau, by cedar and mesquite. Shrubs of the grasslands of the lower altitudes of the west include acacia, mesquite, and mimosa; the Trans-Pecos Mountains have pine, fir, and spruce. The Rio Grande valley is mostly covered by brush, mesquite, cedar, post oak, and in places a dense growth of prickly pear. In the southwest are found cactus, agave, and yucca.

Texas is the temporary home every year for many migratory birds. Aransas Wildlife Refuge, for example, on the Gulf above Corpus Christi, provides the winter quarters for the almost extinct whooping crane. The state's indigenous animals include the mule and white-tailed deer, black bear, mountain lion, antelope, and bighorn, but the American bison, or buffalo, is found only in zoos and on a few ranches. Among the smaller mammals are the muskrat, raccoon, opossum, jackrabbit, fox, mink, coyote, and armadillo.


Minerals represent a very significant part of the state's natural wealth. The known petroleum deposits of Texas--about 8 billion barrels--make up approximately one-third of the known U. S. supply. The Texas Panhandle is one of the world's great natural-gas reservoirs. Mineral fuels generally account for over 90% of the value of all minerals produced in the state, although Texas is also a leading producer of natural graphite, magnesium, sulfur, and cement and has considerable reserves of lignite (low-grade coal). Uranium was discovered in 1954 in the Coastal Plain, and additional deposits have been found in various other parts of the state. The state's great variety of soils must also be considered as a resource.


Although surpassed in population only by California and New York, Texas is still considerably less crowded than the nation as a whole; the huge area of Texas means that the state's population density is less than that of the nation as a whole. Yet the state's population has increased significantly in recent decades, more than doubling between 1940 and 1980 and increasing by 19.4 in the decade from 1980 to 1990 (well above the 1980-90 national average of 9.8%) The increases have resulted in part through in-migration, although there was also some out-migration during the 1980s. Texas' two extensive metropolitan areas are the Dallas-Fort Worth and the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria consolidated metropolitan statistical areas. Together they constitute about 45% of the state's population. In addition there are 23 metropolitan statistical areas (mainly single-city metropolitan regions) that together with the consolidated areas account for more than 80% of the population. Racially, Texas is made up of whites, who constitute about 75% of the population; blacks, about 12%; and other nonwhites, about 13%. Hispanics account for 25.5% of the population. European settlers during the 19th and early 20th centuries included Germans, Swedes, and Czechs.

Counties and Cities

Texas has 254 counties ranging in population from 107 (Loving County, 1990) to 2,818,199 (Harris, 1990), and in size from Rockwall's 386 sq km (149 sq mi) to Brewster's 16,035 sq km (6,191 sq mi), nearly equal to the combined areas of Connecticut and Rhode Island. Major cities include the capital, Austin; the state's largest city, Houston; and Dallas and Fort Worth, only about 50 km (30 mi) apart. San Antonio is a fast-growing shipping center for oil and agricultural products; other important commercial centers are Abilene, Amarillo, Beaumont, Brownsville, Corpus Christi, El Paso, Galveston, Laredo, Lubbock, Midland, Port Arthur, Waco, and Wichita Falls.


In 1839, Texas president Mirabeau B. Lamar set aside land in each county for public schools and for a state university. Today the enrollment in Texas public schools exceeds 3 million, and higher education in the state includes about 100 public institutions (see State of Texas Universities). Additional thousands of elementary and secondary students attend private schools, and Texas has several dozen private institutions of higher education (including Baylor, Rice, and Southern Methodist Universities).

Culture and Historical Sites

Texas has several hundred public libraries--the largest being those in Dallas and Houston; the libraries of the University of Texas at Austin have the state's largest collections. There are more than 300 museums; and there are 3 major symphony orchestras--in Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio. Among the outstanding museums are the Dallas and Fort Worth museums of fine arts, the Marion Koogler McNay Art Institute and Witte Museum in San Antonio, the Contemporary Arts Museum in Houston, and the Amon Carter Museum in Fort Worth. Well-known symphony orchestras are also in Amarillo, Fort Worth, and Austin. There are ballet companies in Austin and Houston, and the Alley Theatre in Houston has a national reputation. The Dallas Opera and the Houston Grand Opera are the state's major opera companies.

The Alamo in San Antonio is the most famous historical site; others are Mission San Jose (also in San Antonio), San Jacinto Monument east of Houston, Fort Davis National Historic Site, and the Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library--part of the University of Texas in Austin.


The first newspaper in Texas, the Gaceta de Texas (Texas Gazette), was published in Spanish in 1813 at Nacogdoches. Among the oldest English newspapers are the Galveston News (1842) and the Dallas Morning News (1885). There are numerous other morning and evening dailies, and Texas is well supplied with radio stations, both AM and FM, as well as with television stations.


For decades oil influenced every aspect of the economic development of Texas. This included the tax structure, since a high percentage of the state's tax revenues was derived from oil and gas. This changed in the mid-1980s when oil prices collapsed devastatingly, greatly diminishing tax revenues and adversely affecting not only oil-related industries but also many others, such as real estate and banking. Slow economic recovery began in 1987, however, helped by the diversification that had already begun in Texas and that was now intensified. The service industries, notably retail and wholesale trade, contribute well over half of the gross state product of Texas.


Texas is a leading agricultural state, frequently ranking third (after California and Iowa) in gross farm income. Agricultural statistics in Texas have been affected by modern technology, which increases productivity: in consequence, the number of persons living on farms has markedly decreased in recent decades. Another trend has been a decline in the total number of farms and ranches.

The largest share of agricultural income is derived from beef cattle. Texas leads the nation in number of beef, which usually exceed 14 million head. Cotton is the leading crop and the state's second-most-valuable farm product. Texas also leads in national production of grain sorghum, watermelons, cabbages, and spinach. Wheat, corn, and other grains are also important. There is good farmland located in most parts of the state, some of it made more productive by use of irrigation and of dry-farming techniques (used in the Panhandle, for example, for wheat production).

Forestry and Fishing

Production of timber--more softwoods than hardwoods--represents a small share of the gross state product of Texas, but shipments of lumber and wood products and of paper and allied products are worth many times that share. As for fishing, shrimp accounts for more than 90% of Texas's total commercial catch. Other species caught include crabs, oysters, flounder, and red snapper.


Texas is the nation's most important producer of minerals. It leads the nation in the production of mineral fuels, with petroleum the most valuable and natural gas the second most valuable. Texas in recent years (excepting the downturn of the mid-1980s) has supplied about one-third of the U. S. production of both oil and natural gas. A foremost state in nonfuel minerals, Texas is a leading producer of natural graphite, magnesium, sulfur, and cement. The eastern part of the state has lignite coal mines. Metals mined in Texas include iron, uranium, magnesium, and sodium.


Before World War II, manufacturing in Texas centered on processing the raw materials, notably petroleum and agricultural products, available in the state. The decades since the war have seen an emphasis on diversification in manufacturing, however, as well as significant industrial expansion. In the late 1980s, in the wake of the disastrous slump, state leaders were attempting to attract more high-tech industries to Texas. Manufactures include a wide range of petroleum and coal products, nonelectrical machinery, chemicals, and food products. Other broad categories of Texan manufactures include electrical machinery and equipment, fabricated metals, primary metals, and transportation equipment. Specific manufactures include such diverse items as wristwatches, radios, cosmetics and drugs, leather goods, and mobile homes. A large number of the approximately 15% of the labor force employed in manufacturing in Texas work in the Dallas-Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas.


Texas attracts millions of out-of-state visitors annually; its tourist-related businesses compete with California and Florida for the U.S. travel market. Many visitors explore Dallas, San Antonio, Houston, Fort Worth, El Paso, Austin, and other cities. Sites of special interest range from Nacogdoches in East Texas, one of the state's oldest cities, to the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center near Houston. Texas's two national parks, Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains, are also popular, as are the numerous and varied state recreation areas. Hunting and fishing are popular pastimes for visitors and Texans alike, as are professional and college sports events.

Transportation and Foreign Trade

As befits its hugeness, Texas ranks first nationally in total highway and railroad mileage. It also has the most airports (about 1,200). There are 12 deepwater ports along the Gulf of Mexico, with Houston the busiest (and ranking among the most active of all U. S. ports). The year 1988 commemorated the 135th anniversary of the first railroad operation in Texas; railway mileage reached its peak in 1922 (approximately 27,500 km/17,000 mi), but the volume of rail freight started to increase again after World War II. Texas is a major exporter of manufactured goods, including chemical and allied products. Also exported are agricultural products--especially cotton and food grains. Texas is habitually the nation's leading exporter of sulfur; additionally, its exports of iron and steel scrap also rank high. Other exports include natural gas and fishery products, especially shrimp.


Texas consumes more energy than any other state--much of the natural gas and oil produced in the state never leave its borders. About 86% of the energy consumed in Texas comes from petroleum and natural gas.


The present Texas constitution was adopted on Feb. 15, 1876, but has been amended many times. The chief executive is the governor, who since 1975 serves forThe (current)Texas Flag 4 years. Legislative authority is exercised by the senate, with 31 members elected for 4-year terms, and the house of representatives, with 150 members elected for 2-year terms. The legislature meets biennially in odd-numbered years. The highest courts of Texas include the nine-member supreme court and the nine-member court of criminal appeals. Judges of the two courts are elected to 6-year overlapping terms. The Texas state delegation to the U.S. House of Representatives was to gain three additional seats following the 1990 census.

In 1978 the state elected its first Republican governor (William P. Clements, Jr.) since 1870, although it returned a Democrat (Mark White) to the governorship in 1982. And Republican John Tower served in the U.S. Senate from 1961 until his retirement in 1985. Despite the popularity of some individual Republicans, including Ronald Reagan and George Bush, Democrats have dominated state-level politics since Reconstruction; competition occurs chiefly between the liberal and conservative wings of the Democratic party. Many Texans, such as former U.S. president Lyndon Johnson and former U.S. House Speaker Sam Rayburn, have played influential roles in national affairs. Henry Cisneros attracted national attention after he became (1981) the first Mexican-American mayor of a major U.S. city (San Antonio), although minority groups have generally been underrepresented in Texas politics.


Evidence of a meeting in eastern Texas between Middle American prehistoric cultures and temple Mound Builders from the eastern part of what is now the United States has been discovered in an Indian mound on the Neches River, and many tribal groups--including the Apache, Caddo, and Comanche--inhabited what is now Texas.

Conquest and Colonization

The first European explorers were the Spaniards Alvar Nunez Cabeza De Vaca (1528) and Francisco Coronado (1541). Other Spanish expeditions followed during the next century, and in 1682, Ysleta, near El Paso, became the first European settlement in Texas. Three years later Robert Cavalier, sieur de La Salle, brought the second flag (French) to Texas. He landed at the head of Lavaca Bay and established Fort Saint Louis. La Salle was killed by one of his own men in 1687, and his fort was destroyed by disease and the Indians. About 1714, however, the Spanish felt threatened by another Frenchman, the explorer and trader Louis Juchereau de Saint Denis. Although he claimed that his intention was simply to establish trade, he was arrested and sent to Mexico City. The Spanish then redoubled their efforts to settle Texas, and by the middle of the 18th century they had mounted more than 100 expeditions to the area.

American Interest in Texas

The sale (1803) of Louisiana to the United States increased interest in Texas from the east. Augustus Magee, a U.S. army officer in Louisiana, befriended the Mexican patriot Bernardo Gutierrez, who had been fighting for his country's independence from Spain. Together they led an expedition into Texas and captured Nacogdoches, Goliad, and San Antonio before Magee died mysteriously in Goliad.

In 1819, Dr. James Long of Natchez, Miss., led another expedition to Texas, hoping to make the region an independent state. He captured Nacogdoches but his forces were soon defeated. A year later, Moses Austin visited San Antonio and sought permission to settle Americans in Texas. Upon returning to Missouri, his dying request was that his son, Stephen Austin, carry out his plans, which the Spanish had approved.

In 1821 the white population of Texas was 7,000, with Goliad, San Antonio, and Nacogdoches the only towns of any size. During this period Mexico secured its independence from Spain, and, in 1823, Stephen Austin went to Mexico City to seek confirmation of his father's grant. A new law required that agents introduce at least 200 families of colonists, so Austin made an agreement with the Mexican governor to settle 300 American families. Colonization was so successful, however, that by 1836 the population of Texas was 50,000.

Revolution and Republic

Differences in language, culture, and religion soon led to difficulties between the new Anglo-American settlers and the Mexican government. Because of the great distance between Texas and Mexico City, cultural and commercial ties grew stronger with the United States, and some settlers hoped that U.S. boundaries would be extended to include Texas. In 1830 the Mexican congress enacted a law to limit immigration to Texas. But this only increased dissatisfaction, for neither the Mexican national constitution nor the constitution of 1827 for the state of Coahuila-Texas granted rights that Anglo-Americans considered inalienable, such as trial by jury and the right of bail. Most settlers also found unacceptable the requirement that they become Roman Catholics because most of them were Protestants.

War broke out between the American settlers and the Mexican government in 1835, and the Texans won the first battle at Gonzales on Oct. 2, 1835. The same year the Texans captured San Antonio after a devastating siege; a provisional government was set up on Mar. 2, 1836, and Sam Houston was named commander in chief of the Texas armies, Stephen Austin having gone to Washington to solicit aid from the U.S. government.

In February and March 1836 one of the most heroic battles in history occurred at the Alamo. The besieged Texas forces commanded by William B. Travis had been reduced to 157. He appealed for help, and about 30 additional men from Gonzales broke through the lines of the Mexican general, Antonio Santa Anna. The 187 defenders, commanded by Travis, James Bowie, and Davy Crockett, then held the Alamo for another 5 days before it fell. March also saw a massacre at Goliad, in which the outnumbered Texans, having surrendered after a battle on Coleto Creek, returned to Goliad only to be killed on the orders of Santa Anna.

Despite reverses, the Texans declared their independence in a great spirit of resistance, and on Mar. 2, 1836, David Burnet was named provisional president. Thinking the war was over, Santa Anna moved eastward with his army. Sam Houston's troops--half the number of the Mexicans--occupied a position at the junction of the San Jacinto River and Buffalo Bayou, opposite Santa Anna's camp. On the afternoon of April 21 the Texans attacked while Santa Anna was having his siesta. Their battle cry was "Remember the Alamo; Remember Goliad." Santa Anna fled but was taken the next day and held prisoner for 6 months.

Statehood and the Mexican War

The Texas republic, whose independence had been recognized by the United States, Great Britain, France, Holland, and Belgium, was soon struggling with Indian wars, raids by Mexican forces, and financial problems. In September 1836, Texans voted for annexation by the United States; approval by the U.S. Congress was delayed until 1845, however, because of the northern states' opposition to the extension of slavery. On Dec. 29, 1845, the U.S. Congress accepted the Texas state constitution, and Texas became the 28th state, with legal slavery.

The Mexican War between the United States and Mexico followed within a few months of Texas' entry into the union. The U.S. victory in that war established the Rio Grande as the border between Mexico and the United States. Texas, however, claimed all the territory from the mouth of the Rio Grande to its source in southern Colorado, a claim vigorously opposed by those who wished to exclude slavery from the territories newly acquired from Mexico. In 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850, Texas relinquished its claim to half of what today is New Mexico and portions of Colorado, Wyoming, Oklahoma, and Kansas in exchange for the sum of $10 million. Texas withdrew from the Union on Feb. 1, 1861. Little fighting took place on Texas soil during the Civil War, the most important engagements being the capture and recapture of Galveston, the principal port. A battle took place at Palmito Ranch near Brownsville, after General Lee had already surrendered at Appomattox.

Military rule following the Civil War was short-lived, but the state was inundated with carpetbaggers. On Mar. 30, 1870, Texas was readmitted to the Union after ratifying the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Following the Civil War cattle ranching became increasingly important to the economy, and vast herds were driven to the railroad in Kansas over the Chisholm Trail.

Modern Era

When the 20th century began, about 3 million people lived in Texas, and agriculture dominated the economy. Then in 1901, Spindletop, the state's first great oil gusher, was discovered. Soon oil was found in virtually every part of the state, and the great east Texas oil field, discovered in 1930, helped lessen the impact of the Depression. Racial segregation was a continuing issue throughout most of the 1950s and '60s, but by 1966, Texas ranked first among southern states in integrating its schools. The poll tax was abolished by court action in 1966. Another court decision led to redistricting the Texas legislature to conform to the Supreme Court policy of one person, one vote. Politically prominent Texans in the 1960s, 70s, 80s, and 90s included President Lyndon B. Johnson, Congresswoman Barbara Jordan, President George Bush, and Governor Ann Richards. In 1987 the Texas legislature approved a landmark $5.7 billion tax increase. Some critics complained that it did not completely correct Texas's past reliance on oil-industry taxes at a time when the state was becoming more dependent on service industries.

Facts About Texas

Area: 695,674 sq km (268,601 sq mi); rank: 2d. Capital: Austin (1996 census, 541,278). Largest city: Houston (1996 census, 1,744,058). Counties: 254. Elevations: highest--2,667 m (8,749 ft), at Guadalupe Peak; lowest--sea level, at the Gulf of Mexico.

Population (1997 resident): 19,439,337; rank: 2nd; density(1990): 25 persons per sq km (64.9 per sq mi). Distribution (1990): 80.3% urban, 19.7% rural. Average annual change (1980-90): +1.9%.

Public enrollment (1990): elementary--2,510,955; secondary--871,932; higher--802,314. Nonpublic enrollment (1980): elementary--94,200; secondary--20,200; combined--30,700; higher (1990)--99,123. Institutions of higher education (1988): 184.


State personal income (1989): $266.8 billion; rank: 3d. Median family income (1989): $31,553; rank: 35th. Nonagricultural labor distribution (1989): manufacturing--970,000 persons; wholesale and retail trade--1,686,000; government--1,222,000; services--1,610,000; transportation and public utilities--401,000; finance, insurance, and real estate--433,000; construction--315,000. Agriculture: income (1989)--$10.8 billion. Fishing: value (1989)--$170 million. Lumber production (1991): 1.1 billion board feet. Mining (nonfuel): value (1988)--$1.5 billion. Manufacturing: value added (1987)--$63.9 billion. Services: value (1987)--$69.9 billion.

Governor: George W Bush Jr (Republician) Lt. Governor (whom in this state is far more powerful than the Governor)-- Bob Bullock, U.S. Congress: Senate--2 Republicans; House--17 Democrats, 13 Republicans. Electoral college votes: 32. State legislature: 31 senators, 150 representatives.

Statehood: Dec. 29, 1845; the 28th state.
Nickname: Lone Star State; bird: mockingbird; flower: bluebonnet; tree: pecan; motto: Friendship; song: "Texas, Our Texas."


GENERAL: Cummings, Joe, Texas Handbook (1990); Federal Writers' Project, Texas: A Guide to the Lone Star State, rev. ed. (1969); Holmes, William, The Encyclopedia of Texas (1984); McDonald, Archie P., ed., The Texas Experience (1986); Richardson, Rupert N., et al., Texas: The Lone Star State, 5th ed. (1987).

LAND AND PEOPLE: Dobie, J. Frank, ed., Legends of Texas (1924; repr. 1976); Duke, Cordia Sloan, and Frantz, Joe B., 6000 Miles of Fence: Life on the XIT Ranch of Texas (1981); Jordan, Terry G., Immigration to Texas (1981); Jordan, T. G., and Bean, J. L., Jr., Texas: A Geography (1983); Nevin, D., The Texans (1976).

HISTORY: Buenger, Walter L., ed., Texas History (1983); Fehrenbach, Theodore R., Lone Star: A History of Texas and the Texans (1985); Siegel, Stanley E., A History of Texas to 1865 (1981); Smyrl, Frank H., ed., Texas History (1985); Stephens, A. R., and Holmes, W. M., Historical Atlas of Texas (1989); Wintz, Cary D., ed., A History of Texas (1983).

ECONOMICS, POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT: Anderson, James E., et al., Texas Politics: An Introduction, 5th ed. (1986); Herzog, L. A., Where North Meets South: Cities, Space, and Politics on the United States-Mexico Border (1990); Kraemer, Richard H., and Newell, Charldean, Essentials of Texas Politics, 3d ed. (1986); Maxwell, Robert S., Texas Economic Growth, 1890 to World War II (1982); Mladenka, K. R., and Hill, K. Q., Texas Government: Politics and Economics, 2d ed. (1989); Pettus, Beryl E., and Bland, Randall W., Texas Government Today, 4th ed. (1986); Spratt, John S., The Road to Spindletop: Economic Change in Texas, 1875-1901 (1983)


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